What Is Maxillofacial Trauma

Physical harm to the face, also known as maxillofacial trauma, is facial trauma. Facial trauma can include soft tissue lesions like burns, lacerations, bruises, cranial bone injuries like nasal fractures and jaw fractures, and damage to the eye orbits. Facial injuries can result in disfigurement and loss of function; for example, blindness or difficulties moving the jaw are possible outcomes. Facial injuries can be fatal, even if rarely life-threatening because they can induce significant bleeding or a breathing obstruction.

Causes And Symptoms And Treatment Of Maxillofacial Trauma

The upper jaw, lower jaw, cheek, nose, eye socket, and forehead are all susceptible to facial injuries. They can be the result of a wound or inflicted by sudden impact. Car and motor accidents, athletic injuries, violence, and damage are the most common causes of maxillofacial.

Symptoms differ according to the type of injury inflicted. Fractures may include pain, swelling, immobility of function or changes in facial symmetry. Other symptoms include numbness and missing teeth. Trauma to the maxillofacial region can result in severe or life-threatening effects, including brain trauma, breathing blockage, excessive bleeding, or shock.

Surgery is required if the injury hinders normal function or results in a significant deformity. Airway management, hemorrhage control, swelling management, infection avoidance, bone fracture repair, lacerations or soft tissue injury repair, and reconstruction are all common treatments for facial trauma. Because airway compromise can arise quickly and insidiously and is potentially fatal, it is critical to ensure that the airway is open and not threatened, for example, by tissues or foreign material. 

Debris in the mouth obstructing the airway can be manually removed or suctioned out, and oxygen therapy can be administered. Prevention of maxillofacial trauma includes buckling up when driving and wearing protective headgear when conducting jobs or hobbies that could cause facial injuries.